Formal upright or Chokkan - Straight, upright, tapering trunk. Branches progress regularly from the
thickest and broadest at the bottom to the finest and shortest at the top.
Informal upright or takichi - Trunk has visible curves, but the apex of the tree is located directly above
the trunk's entry into the soil line.
Extreme Informal or Miyogi - Trunk has exagerated curves and often lots of deadwood.
Slanting or Shakan - Trunk is straight like that of a formal upright but the apex of the bonsai is located to
the left or right of the root base.
Cascade or Kengai - Bottom of a cascade style falls below the base of the pot.
Semi-cascade or Han-kengai - Bottom of the tree extends beneath level of the lip of the bonsai pot but
not below the base of the pot.
Exposed-root or Neagari - Roots of the tree are exposed as extensions of the trunk, free from soil. This
type of tree would be seen along a stream where the soil is slowly eroded from under the tree.
Twin-trunk, two-trunk or Sokan - Two trunks rise from a single set of roots. Generally one trunk will be
larger than the other and they are often called mother/daughter. Generally, the smaller trunk will be behind
and the branches of the smaller trunk start lower but complete those of the bigger tree.
Forest or Yose-ue - Planting of many trees, typically an odd number unless too many to count easily, in a
bonsai pot or more often, on a slab of stone.
Literati or Bunjingi - A bare trunk line, with few branches typically near the apex of a long, often contorted
Broom or Hokidachi -Tree with extensive, fine branching. Trunk is straight and upright and branches out
in all directions about 1/3 of the way up the entire height of the tree forming a ball-shaped crown.
Windswept or Fukinagashi - A slant style where all of the branches are on one side of the tree as if they
had been blown there by a strong persistent wind along a coast.
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